SBE 35 Deep Ocean Standards Thermometer
The SBE 35 is a laboratory standards thermometer with the unique ability to be used in fixed point cells and at depths to 6800 meters. It is unaffected by shock and vibration encountered in shipboard and industrial environments, making it ideal for use in calibration labs (-5 to +35 °C), and in the thermodynamic method of measuring hydro turbine efficiency. The SBE 35 can also be used with a CTD / Water Sampler system, eliminating reversing thermometers and providing higher accuracy temperature readings at lower cost.
The SBE 35 is externally powered, and communicates via a standard RS-232 interface. Measurements are output as raw data or in engineering units (°C).
- Industrial or Lab Applications - Output can be displayed in real-time and logged to a computer. The SBE 35 is standardized in water triple point (TPW) and gallium melting point (GaMP) cells, following the methodology applied to a standards-grade platinum resistance thermometer (SPRT). Unlike an SPRT, it does not require an expensive resistance bridge, making it a dramatically cost-effective alternative. For fixed point cell measurements, the guard is removed; a brass and plastic tip bushing is attached to provide the length, diameter, and thermal averaging characteristic of an SPRT (resolves temperature to approximately 0.000025 °C (25 µK); accuracy better than 1 mK).
- Deep Ocean Applications - The SBE 35 can be used with the SBE 32 Carousel Water Sampler and one of the following systems:
- Real-time (bottles closed by command from ship) -
SBE 9plus CTD with SBE 11plus Deck Unit, or
SBE 19, 19plus, 19plus V2, 25, or 25plus CTD with SBE 33 Deck Unit.
- Autonomous (bottles closed based on programmed pressures or times) -
SBE 9plus CTD with SBE 17plus V2 Searam, or
SBE 19, 19plus, 19plus V2, 25, or 25plus CTD with Auto Fire Module (AFM).
- Real-time (bottles closed by command from ship) -
The SBE 35 makes a measurement each time a bottle fire confirmation is received, and stores the time, bottle position, and temperature, allowing comparison with CTD and water bottle data.
- RS-232 output at 300 baud, 8 data bits, no parity.
- Interface Box connects SBE 35 to a computer for setup and lab use (100-240 VAC powered, provides 15 VDC to SBE 35, and buffers communication lines to minimize interference from external noise).
- Aluminum housing; depths to 6800 m.
- Seasoft© V2 Windows software package (instrument setup, data display, and data upload).
- Five-year limited warranty.
- XSG or wet-pluggable MCBH connector.
Temperature is determined by applying an AC excitation to reference resistances and an ultrastable aged thermistor with a drift rate < 0.001 °C/year. Each of the resulting outputs is digitized by a 20-bit A/D converter. The reference resistor is a hermetically sealed, temperature-controlled VISHAY. The switches are mercury wetted reed relays with a stable contact resistance. AC excitation and ratiometric comparison using a common processing channel removes measurement errors due to parasitic thermocouples, offset voltages, leakage currents, and gain errors. Maximum power dissipated in the thermistor is 0.5 µWatts, and contributes < 200 µK of overheat error.
Sensor Output (raw counts) = 1048576 * (NT - NZ) / (NR - NZ)
where NR is reference resistor output, NZ is zero ohms output, NT is thermistor output.
Each measurement acquisition cycle takes 1.1 sec. The number of cycles per measurement is programmable. Increasing the cycles increases acquisition time while reducing RMS temperature noise. In a thermally quiet environment, the temperature noise standard deviation is 82 * sqrt (1/n cycles) [µK].
|Measurement Range||-5 to +35 °C|
|Initial Accuracy||± 0.001 °C|
|Typical Stability||0.001 °C per year|
|Calibration||-1.5 to + 32.5 °C|
|Real-Time Clock||Watch-crystal type|
|Input Power||9 - 16 VDC;
On power application (≈ 1 minute) 140 – 160 mA; Operating 60 – 70 mA
|Output Signal||RS-232 (300 baud, 8 data bits, no parity)|
|Housing & Depth rating||Aluminum, 6800 m|
|Weight||0.9 kg in air, 0.5 kg in water|
Note: Temperature sensor guard not shown.
|Title||Type||Publication Date||PDF File|
|SBE 35 Brochure||Product Brochure||Wednesday, August 19, 2015||35brochureAug15.pdf|
|SBE 35 Manual||Product Manual||Thursday, February 12, 2015||35_013.pdf|
|AN42: ITS-90 Temperature Scale||Application Notes||Wednesday, May 18, 2016||appnote42May16.pdf|
|AN57: Connector Care and Cable Installation||Application Notes||Tuesday, May 13, 2014||appnote57Jan14.pdf|
|AN68: Using USB Ports to Communicate with Sea-Bird Instruments||Application Notes||Friday, October 19, 2012||appnote68Oct12.pdf|
How often do I need to have my instrument and/or auxiliary sensors recalibrated? Can I recalibrate them myself?
- Profiling CTD — recalibrate once/year, but possibly less often if used only occasionally. We recommend that you return the CTD to Sea-Bird for recalibration. (In principle, it is possible for calibration to be performed elsewhere, if the calibration facility has the appropriate equipment andtraining. However, the necessary equipment is quite expensive to buy and maintain.) In between laboratory calibrations, take field salinity samples to document conductivity cell drift.
- Thermosalinograph — recalibrate at least once/year, but possibly more often depending on the degree of bio-fouling in the water.
- DO sensor —
— SBE 43 — recalibrate once/year, but possibly less often if used only occasionally and stored correctly (see Application Note 64), and also depending on the amount of fouling and your ability to do some simple validations (see Application Note 64-2)
— SBE 63 — recalibrate once/year, but possibly less often if used only occasionally and stored correctly and also depending on the amount of fouling and your ability to do some simple validations (see SBE 63 manual)
- pH sensor —
— SBE 18 pH sensor or SBE 27 pH/ORP sensor — recalibrate at the start of every cruise, and then at least once/month, depending on use and storage
— Satlantic SeaFET pH sensor — recalibrate at least once/year. See FAQ tab on Satlantic's SeaFET page for details (How often does the SeaFET need to be calibrated?).
- Transmissometer — usually do not require recalibration for several years. Recalibration at the manufacturer’s factory is the most practical method.
We often have requests from customers to have some way to know if the CTD is out of calibration. The general character of sensor drift in Sea-Bird conductivity, temperature, and pressure measurements is well known and predictable. However, it is very difficult to know precisely how far a CTD calibration has drifted over time unless you have access to a very sophisticated calibration lab. In our experience, an annual calibration schedule will usually maintain the CTD accuracy to within 0.01 psu in Salinity.
Conductivity drifts as a change in slope as a result of accumulated fouling that coats the inside of the conductivity cell, reducing the area of the cell and causing an under-reporting of conductivity. Fouling consists of both biological growth and accumulated oils and inorganic material (sediment). Approximately 95% of fouling occurs as the cell passes through oil and other contaminants floating on the sea surface. Most conductivity fouling is episodic, as opposed to gradual and steady drift. Most fouling events are small and mostly transitory, but they have a cumulative affect over time. A severe fouling event, such as deployment through an oil spill, could have a dramatic but only partially recoverable effect, causing an immediate jump shift toward lower salinity. As fouling becomes more severe, the fit becomes increasingly non-linear and offsets and slopes no longer produce adequate correction, and return to Sea-Bird for factory calibration is required. Frequently checking conductivity drift is likely to be the most productive data assurance measure you can take. Comparing conductivity from profile to profile (as a routine check) will allow you to detect sudden changes that may indicate a fouling event and the need for cleaning and/or re-calibration.
Temperature generally drifts slowly, at a steady rate and predictably as a simple offset at the rate of about 1-2 millidegrees per year. This is approximately equal to 1-2 parts per million in Salinity error (very small).
Pressure sensor drift is also an offset, and annual comparisons to an accurate barometer to determine offset will generally keep the sensor within specification for several years, particularly as the sensors age over time.
What are the recommended practices for connectors - mating and unmating, cleaning corrosion, and replacing?
Mating and Unmating Connectors:
It is important to prepare and mate connectors correctly, both in terms of the costs to repair them and to preserve data quality. Leaking connectors cause noisy data and even potential system shutdowns. Application Note 57: Connector Care and Cable Installation describes the proper care and installation of connectors for Sea-Bird instruments. The Application Note covers connector cleaning and cable or dummy plug installation, locking sleeve installation, and cold weather tips.
Checking for Leakage and Cleaning Corrosion on Connectors:
If there has been leakage, it will show up as green-colored corrosion product. Performing the following steps can usually reverse the effect of the leak:
- Thoroughly clean the connector with water, followed by alcohol.
- Give the connector surfaces a light coating of silicon grease.
Re-mate the connectors properly — see Application Note 57: Connector Care and Cable Installation and 9-minute video covering O-ring, connector, and cable maintenance.
- The main concern when replacing a bulkhead connector is that the o-rings on the connector and end cap must be prepared and installed correctly; if they are not, the instrument will flood. See the question below for general procedure on handling o-rings.
- Use a thread-locking compound on the connector threads to prevent the new connector from loosening, which could also lead to flooding.
- If the cell guard must be removed to open the instrument, take extra care not to break the glass conductivity cell.
What are the recommended practices for storing sensors at low temperatures, and deploying at low temperatures or in frazil or pancake ice?
Large numbers of Sea-Bird conductivity instruments have been used in Arctic and Antarctic programs.
Special accommodation to keep temperature, conductivity, oxygen, and optical sensors at or above 0 C is advised. Often, the CTD is brought inside protective doors between casts to achieve this.
When freezing is possible, we recommend that the conductivity sensor be stored dry. Remove larger droplets of water by blowing through the cell. Do not use compressed air, which typically contains oil vapor. Attach a length of Tygon tubing to each end of the conductivity cell to close the cell ends. See Application Note 2D: Instructions for Care and Cleaning of Conductivity Cells for details.
There are several considerations to weigh when contemplating deployments at low temperatures in general, and in frazil or pancake ice:
- Ensure that the instrument is at or above water temperature before it is deployed. If the cell gets colder than 0 to -2 ºC while on deck, when it enters the water a layer of ice forms inside the cell as the cell warms to ocean temperature. If ice forms inside the conductivity cell, measurements will be low of correct until the ice layer melts and disappears. Thin layers of ice will not hurt the conductivity cell, but repeated ice formation on the electrodes will degrade the conductivity calibration (at levels of 0.001 to 0.020 psu) and thicker layers of ice can lead to glass fracture and permanent damage of the cell.
- For accurate measurements, keep ice out of the sensing region of the conductivity cell. The conductivity measurement involves determining the electrical resistance of the water inside the sensor. Ice is essentially a non-conductor. To the extent that ice displaces the water, the conductivity will register (very) misleadingly low. Some type of screening is necessary to keep ice out of the cell. This is relatively easy to arrange for the Sea-Bird conductivity cell, which is an electrode-type cell, because its sensing region is totally inside a long tube; plastic mesh could be positioned at each end and would have zero effect on accuracy and stability.
The above considerations apply to all known conductivity sensor types, whether electrode or inductive types.
If deploying at low temperatures but no surface frazil or pancake ice is present, rinse the conductivity cell in one of the following salty solutions (salty water depresses the freezing point) to prevent freezing during deployment. But this does not mean you can store the cell in one of these solutions outside . . . it will freeze.
- Solution of 1% Triton in sterile seawater (use 0.5-micron filtered seawater or boiled seawater), or
- Brine solution (distilled seawater or homemade salt solution that is higher than 35 psu in salinity).
Note that there is still a risk of forming ice inside the conductivity cell if deploying through frazil or pancake ice on the surface, if the freezing point of the salt water is the same as the water temperature. Therefore, we recommend that you deploy the conductivity cell in a dry state for these deployments.
Commercially available alcohol or glycol antifreezes contain trace amounts of oils that will coat the conductivity cell and the electrodes, causing a calibration shift, and consequently result in errors in the data. Do not use alcohol or glycol in the conductivity cell.
In general, neither the accuracy of the temperature measurement nor the survival of the temperature sensor will be affected by ice.
For the SBE 43 and SBE 63 Dissolved Oxygen sensor, avoid prolonged exposure to freezing temperature, including during shipment. Do not store the with water (fresh or seawater), Triton solution, alcohol, or glycol in the plenum. The best precaution is to keep the sensor indoors or in some shelter out of the cold weather.
What is the function of the zinc anode on some instruments?
A zinc anode attracts corrosion and prevents aluminum from corroding until all the zinc is eaten up. Sea-Bird uses zinc anodes on an instrument if it has an aluminum housing and/or end cap. Instruments with titanium or plastic housings and end caps (for example, SBE 37 MicroCAT) do not require an anode.
Check the anode(s) periodically to verify that it is securely fastened and has not been eaten away.
|35||DEEP OCEAN STANDARDS THERMOMETER – Power & communication supported by power supply / interface box for laboratory use or by CTD / SBE 32 Carousel system for in-situ use. Includes laboratory power supply/interface box & associated cables, fixed point cell bushing, Seasoft software, & complete documentation. (Note: CTD/Carousel interface cable sold separately)|
|SBE 35 Wet-Pluggable Connector Option|
|35-1||Wet-pluggable (MCBH) connectors instead of AG connectors on instrument and lab data cable||Wet-pluggable connectors may be mated in wet conditions. Their pins do not need to be dried before mating. By design, water on connector pins is forced out as connector is mated. However, they must not be mated or un-mated while submerged. Wet-pluggable connectors have a non-conducting guide pin to assist pin alignment (exception: 6-pin connectors) & require less force to mate, making them easier to mate reliably under dark or cold conditions, compared to XSG/AG connectors. Like XSG/AG connectors, wet-pluggables need proper lubrication & require care during use to avoid trapping water in sockets.|
|SBE 35 Spares & Accessories|
|50175||Fixed point cell bushing, spare||For calibration measurements in thermodynamic fixed-point cells, brass & white plastic tip bushing gives SBE 35 length, diameter, & thermal averaging characteristic that mimics standards-grade platinum resistance thermometer (SPRT).|
|80555||Lab data cable, SBE 35/35RT to 90248, MS to AG206, 2.4 m (DN 31116)||80555 (standard connector) or 801534 (wet-pluggable connector) cable to interface with 90248 Power Supply/Interface Box included in standard shipment; this is spare.|
|801534||Lab data cable, SBE 35 / 35RT to 90248, Wet-pluggable, MS to MCIL-6FS, 2.4 m (DN 32962)|
|171220||Carousel interface Y-cable, AG connectors, SBE 35/35RT to SBE 9 & SBE 32 (DN 32208)||SBE 35 can record temperature with each SBE 32 Carousel Water Sampler bottle closing, for comparison to data from CTD’s temperature sensor. SBE 35 can be used with any size Carousel (full size 32, compact 32C, or sub-compact 32SC).
|171995||Carousel interface Y-cable, Wet-pluggable, SBE 35 / 35RT to SBE 9 & SBE 32 (DN 32963)|
|171221||Carousel interface cable, AG connectors, SBE 35/35RT to SBE 32, used with SBE 33 Deck unit, 2.4 m (DN 32209)|
|171996||Carousel interface cable, Wet-pluggable, SBE 35 / 35RT to SBE 32, used with SBE 33 Deck Unit, 2.4 m (DN 32964)|
|50225||SBE 35 (long sting) mount bracket for 9plus|
|90248||SBE 35/35RT Power Supply/Interface box (includes 80555 sensor to box cable, 171887 box to computer cable, & AC power cable)||90248 included in SBE 35 standard shipment; this is spare.|
|20200||USB to Serial Port Adapter, FTDI UC232R-10 (connects computers with USB ports to RS-232 instruments)||Many newer PCs & laptop computers have USB port(s) instead of RS-232 serial port(s). USB serial adapter plugs into USB port, & allows a serial device to be connected through adapter. Multi-port adapters are available from other companies; see Application Note 68.|
Many cables, mount kits, and spare parts can be ordered online.
- 80555 To Power Supply / Interface Box (from 35/35RT AG connector), 2.4 m, DN 31116
- 801534 To Power Supply / Interface Box (from 35/35RT Wet-pluggable connector), 2.4 m, DN 32962
- 171887 To computer COM port (from Power Supply / Interface Box), 3 m
- 17015 To AC power supply from Power Supply / Interface Box (U.S. Standard)
- 171220 To SBE 32 and SBE 9plus or 17plus V2 or AFM (AG connectors), Y-cable, DN 32208
- 171995 To SBE 32 and SBE 9plus or 17plus V2 or AFM (Wet-pluggable connectors), Y-cable, DN 32963
- 171221 To SBE 32 (AG connectors) (when SBE 32 used with SBE 33 Deck Unit), 2.4 m, DN 32209
- 171996 To SBE 32 (Wet-pluggable connectors) (when SBE 32 used with SBE 33 Deck Unit), 2.4 m, DN 32964
- Mounted to SBE 9plus
50225 SBE 35 to SBE 9plus Mount Kit (document 67055)
- 50175 Fixed point cell bushing, spare
- 23041 Zinc anode ring for end cap