Science and Technology Behind the Measurements
The list below contains links to Sea-Bird Technical Papers and useful references on instrument characteristics and methods.
Application Notes / FAQs / Glossary / Training
- Application Notes contain valuable information about how to use our instruments and software, including information on coefficient calculations, calibration procedures, instrument adjustments, configuration assistance, and instrument care and maintenance.
- Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) covering general instrument questions, general oceanographic questions, recommended practices, service, ordering, software, data analysis and processing, and manufacturing.
- Glossary of oceanographic and Sea-Bird terminology.
- Sea-Bird Training Materials used for Sea-Bird University (a twice yearly, 4-day class taught at Sea-Bird).
- Application Note 93: CTD Basics provides a very basic introduction to CTDs.
- Newsletters contain press releases and Sea-Bird's scientific advances in oceanographic instruments and measurement.
Sea-Bird Technical Papers (not published)
Complete text of papers written by Sea-Bird to explain the engineering and science behind a specific Sea-Bird instrument or measurement methodology:
- (Video) Seeing what You have only heard about in the ocean: The Mediterranean Overturn, David Murphy, Sea-Bird Scientific, Ignite Presentation at Oceans 2015, October 2015.
- Comparison of Argo float pressure sensor performance: Druck versus Kistler, David Murphy, Sea-Bird Scientific, February 2015.
- Observing a Western Mediterranean overturn event with a Navis BGC autonomous profiling float, Ian Walsh, David Murphy, Geoff MacIntyre, Sea-Bird Scientific, October 2014.
- Accuracy and Stability of Argo SBE 41 and SBE 41CP CTD Conductivity and Temperature Sensors, Carol Janzen, Nordeen Larson, Rick Beed, Kristi Anson, Sea-Bird Electronics, Preliminary summary of SBE 41 and 41CP sensor performance on Argo profiling floats, December 2008.
- Conductivity Sensors for Moored and Autonomous Operation, Sea-Bird Electronics.
- Sea-Bird Calibration System Development, Sea-Bird Electronics, August 1995.
- Measurement Accuracy at Triple Point of Water and Gallium Melt Point Supports a Total Measurement Uncertainty of 0.0006 degrees C, Sea-Bird Electronics (09/01).
- Application Note 92: Real-Time Oceanography with Inductive Moorings and the Inductive Modem Module, Sea-Bird Electronics.
- Application Note 6: Determination of Sound Velocity from CTD Data, Sea-Bird Electronics.
- Application Note 38: TC Duct Fundamentals, Sea-Bird Electronics.
- Strain Gauge Pressure Sensor Error Sources:
Application Note 27Druck, Sea-Bird Electronics (current production instruments with Druck pressure sensors),
Application Note 27, Sea-Bird Electronics (older instruments with Paine pressure sensors).
- On Sampling Biases arising from Insufficient Bottle Flushing, Christopher Paver 1, Louis Codispoti 2, From Poster Presentation, 2016 Ocean Sciences Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, 21 - 26 February 2016.
1 NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information 2 University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science
- Long-Term Stability of a Moored Optical Oxygen Sensor in an Estuary, Stephanie Jaeger 1, Simone Simbeck 1, Carol Janzen 2, Samuel Bennett 1, David Murphy 1, From Poster Presentation, 2016 Ocean Sciences Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, 21 - 26 February 2016.
1 Sea-Bird Scientific 2 Alaska Ocean Observing System
- Advances in Bio-Optical Sensing on Robotic Platforms to elucidate Ecosystem Production in the Interior Ocean, Ian Walsh 1, Nick Hardman-Mountford 2, Francois Dufois 2, Bozena Wojtasiewicz 2, Dirk Slawinski 2, David Murphy 1, From Poster Presentation, 2016 Ocean Sciences Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, 21 - 26 February 2016.
1 Sea-Bird Scientific 2 CSIRO
- Considerations on the Collection of Data from Bio-Argo Floats across Sampling Scales, Ian Walsh, Joel Reiter, Dan Quittman, David Murphy, Thomas Mitchell, Sea-Bird Scientific, From Poster Presentation, GAIC 2015 Meeting, Galway, Ireland, 14 - 18 September 2015.
- Slope to Basin and Vertical Particle Transport Dynamics Measured with a Profiling Biogeochemical Float, Ian Walsh, Dave Murphy, Thomas O. Mitchell, Sea-Bird Scientific, From Poster Presentation, 2014 Ocean Sciences Meeting, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 23-28 February 2014.
- New Generation of Instrumentation for Navis Profiling Floats, Joel Reiter, Dan Quittman, Thomas O. Mitchell, Sea-Bird Scientific, From Poster Presentation, 2014 Ocean Sciences Meeting, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 23-28 February 2014.
- Improving Argo Float Data: Steps toward Implementing Onboard Cell Thermal Mass Corrections, Carol Janzen, Dave Murphy, Joel Reiter, Sea-Bird Scientific, From Poster Presentation, 2014 Ocean Sciences Meeting, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 23-28 February 2014.
- Drift Measurements in Pressure Sensors, Joel Reiter, Dave Murphy, and Nordeen Larson, Sea-Bird Electronics, From Poster Presentation, 2012 Ocean Sciences Meeting, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 19-24 February 2012.
- On the Use of a Secondary Standard to Improve Autosal Calibration, Genevieve Haviland Howell, Richard Guenther, Carol Janzen, Nordeen Larson (Sea-Bird Electronics), From Poster Presentation, AGU Ocean Sciences, Portland, Oregon, USA, 22 - 26 February 2010.
- Measurement of Salinity and Temperature Profiles through the Sea Surface on Argo Floats, David Murphy1, Stephen Riser2, Nordeen Larson1, and Carol Janzen1, From Poster Presentation, 4th Aquarius/SAC-D Science Workshop, Puerto Madryn, Argentina, 3 - 5 December 2008.
1 Sea-Bird Electronics 2 University of Washington
- STS: An Instrument for Extending Argo Temperature and Salinity Measurements through the Sea Surface, Nordeen Larson, Carol Janzen, and David Murphy, Sea-Bird Electronics, From Poster Presentation, 2008 Ocean Sciences Meeting, Orlando Florida, 2 - 7 March 2008.
- Improvements to the SBE 43 Oxygen Calibration Algorithm, David Murphy, Nordeen Larson, and Brad Edwards, Sea-Bird Electronics, From Poster Presentation, 2008 Ocean Sciences Meeting, Orlando Florida, 2 - 7 March 2008.
- Assessing the Calibration Stability of Oxygen Sensor Data on Argo profiling floats using routine WOCE monitoring data from HOT, Carol Janzen and Nordeen Larson, Sea-Bird Electronics, From Poster Presentation, 2008 Ocean Sciences Meeting, Orlando Florida, 2 - 7 March 2008.
- Extend Your Dissolved Oxygen Measurements in High Fouling Environments, Carol Janzen, David Murphy, Sea-Bird Electronics, From Poster developed for Estuarine Research Federation 2007 Conference, Providence, RI, USA, November 4 - 8, 2007.
- A Year of Oxygen Measurements from Argo Floats, Nordeen Larson, Sea-Bird Electronics, From Poster Presentation, 1st ARGO Science Workshop, Tokyo, Japan, 12 - 14 November 2003.
Published Technical Papers
- Long-Term Accuracy, Stability of Argo CTDs, Carol Janzen, Norge Larson, David Murphy, Sea-Bird Scientific, Sea Technology, February 2016.
- Real-Time Ocean Observing Systems with Inductive Modem Telemetry Technology, Debbie Bresko, David Murphy, Sea-Bird Scientific, Ocean News & Technology, Volume 20, Issue 8, August 2014.
- Biogeochemical Monitoring of the Oceans Using Autonomous Profiling Floats, Andrew Barnard (WET Labs) and Tom Mitchell (Sea-Bird Electronics), Ocean News & Technology, Volume 19, Issue 2, March 2013.
- Environmental Monitoring of Dredging Operations, Thomas O. Mitchell (Sea-Bird Electronics) and Ian Walsh (WET Labs), Ocean News & Technology, Volume 18, Issue 11, December 2012.
- Physical Oceanographic Data from Seaglider Trials in Stratified Coastal Waters Using a New Pumped Payload CTD, Carol Janzen (Sea-Bird Electronics), Elizabeth Creed (iRobot Corporation), Proceedings of Oceans 2011 MTS/IEEE Kona, September 19 - 22, 2011.
- Improving CTD Data from Gliders by Optimizing Sample Rate and Flow Past Sensors, Carol Janzen (Sea-Bird Electronics), Ocean News & Technology, Volume 17, Issue 7, August 2011.
- Considerations for CTD Spatial and Temporal Resolution on Moving Platforms, Carol Janzen (Sea-Bird Electronics), Ocean News & Technology, Volume 15, Issue 6, September 2009.
- WQM: New Instrumentation for Coastal Monitoring, Carol Janzen (Sea-Bird Electronics), Nordeen Larson (Sea-Bird Electronics), and Casey Moore (WET Labs), Sea Technology, Volume 49, Number 2, February 2008.
- Long-Term Oxygen Measurements, Carol Janzen, Nordeen Larson, and David Murphy, Sea-Bird Electronics, International Ocean Systems, Volume 12, Number 2, March/April 2008.
- WQM: A New Integrated Water Quality Monitoring Package for Long-Term In-Situ Observation of Physical and Biogeochemical Parameters, Cristina M. Orrico1, Casey Moore1, Dave Romanko1, Alex Derr1, Andrew H. Barnard1, Carol Janzen2, Norge Larson2, David Murphy2, Rob Johnson2, Jesse Bauman2, Proceedings of Oceans 2007 MTS/IEEE Vancouver, B.C., Canada, October 1 - 4, 2007.
1 WET Labs 2 Sea-Bird Electronics
- Getting More Mileage out of Dissolved Oxygen Sensors in Long-Term Moored Applications, Carol Janzen, David Murphy, Nordeen Larson, Sea-Bird Electronics, Proceedings of Oceans 2007 MTS/IEEE Vancouver, B.C., Canada, October 1 - 4, 2007.
- Dissolved oxygen extrema in the Arctic ocean halocline from the North Pole to the Lincoln Sea, Kelly Kenison Falkner, Michael Steele, Rebecca A. Woogate, James H. Swift, Knut Aagaard, James Morison, Deep Sea Research, I 52 (2005) 1138 - 1154.
- Development of an Optimized Dissolved Oxygen Sensor for Oceanographic Profiling, Jim Carlson, Sea-Bird Electronics, International Ocean Systems, Volume 6, Number 5, September/October 2002.
- Advances in Drifting Buoy Technology, Sean C. Kennan, Pearn P. Niiler, and Andrew Sybrandy, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA. USA, Int. WOCE Newsletter, #30, March 1998, 7-10.
- In-situ Temperature Calibration: A Remark on Instruments and Methods, G. Budeus and W. Schneider, Alfred-Wegener-Institut für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven, Germany, Int. WOCE Newsletter, #30, March 1998, 16-18.
- Comparative Thermodynamic Efficiency Measurements Using PT-100 Sensors and Seabird 38, E. Bokko, Norconsult AS and H. Hullaas, SWECO Groner AS, For International Group for Hydroelectric Efficiency Measurement (IGHEM) 2004 Conference.
- Thermodynamic Method: Comparison of Sea-Bird and Pt 100 Temperature Probes, E. Paquet, E.D.F. Division Technique Générale, France, For International Group for Hydroelectric Efficiency Measurement (IGHEM), 1998 Conference, in conjunction with HydroVision '98, Reno, Nevada USA, July 28-31 1998, p 217-227.
- On the Design and Implementation of Argo, A Global Array of Profiling Floats, The Argo Science Team (Dean Roemmich [chair], Olaf Boebel, Howard Freeland, Brian King, Pierre-Yves LeTraon, Robert Molinari, W. Brechner Owens, Stephen Riser, Uwe Send, Kensuke Takeuchi, Susan Wijffels).
- Temperature Measurements in Flowing Water: Viscous Heating of Sensor Tips, Nordeen Larson and Arthur Pederson, Sea-Bird Electronics, 1st IGHEM Meeting, Montreal, Canada, June 1996.
- The Correction for Thermal-Lag Effects in Sea-Bird CTD Data, Morison, J., R. Andersen, Larson, N., D'Asaro, E., and Boyd, T., Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology (JAOT), V11(4), August 1994, 1151-1164.
- Dynamic Response of Sea-Bird CTD Pressure Sensors to Temperature, Chiswell, S.M., Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology (JAOT), V8(5), October 1991, p 659-668.
- Thermal Inertia of Conductivity Cells: Theory, Lueck, R.G. (1990), Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology (JAOT), V7(5), October 1990, p 741-755.
- Thermal Inertia of Conductivity Cells: Observations with a Sea-Bird Cell, Lueck, R.G. and J.J. Picklo, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology (JAOT), V7(5), October 1990, p 756-768.
- Moored Salinity Time Series Measurements at 0°, 140° W, McPhaden, M.J., H. Paul Freitag and Andrew J. Shepherd, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology (JAOT), V7(4), August 1990, p 568-575.
- Dynamic Response Calibration of Sea-Bird Temperature and Conductivity Probes, Gregg, M.C. and W.C. Hess, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology (JAOT), V2(3), September 1985, 304-313.
References (complete text not available on-line through our website)
- Smethie, W.M. Jr., et al., "A lightweight vertical rosette for deployment in ice-covered waters". Deep-Sea Research I (2011), doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2010.12.007. (abstract)
- Edwards, B., Janzen, C., Murphy, D., Larson, N., "Calibration, Response and Hysteresis in Deep-Sea Dissolved Oxygen Measurements", Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, Volume 27, Issue 5, May 2010. (abstract)
- Irish, J.D., Ward, L.G., and Boduch, S., "Correcting and Validating Moored Oxygen Time-Series Observations in the Gulf of Maine", MTS 1-410-884-5330, IEEE Catalog Number CFP08OCE-CDR, ISBN 978-1-4244-2620-1, Library of Congress 2008904879.
- Riser, S.C and Johnson, K.S., "Net production of oxygen in the subtropical ocean", Nature, January 2008, p. 323 - 325. (abstract)
- "Supercalibration on the High Seas" (1997), NMi News, Nederlands Meetinstituut, V11(2), 3.
- Larson, N.G. (1996) "Using a Primary Temperature Standard at Sea: A Case Study on WOCE P-15S", International Marine Technicians Workshop (INMARTECH '96), Southampton England, Final Report.
- Baker, E.T., Feely, R.A., Mottl, M.J., Sansone, F. T., Wheat, C.G., Resing, J.A., Lupton, J.E., "Hydrothermal plumes along the East Pacific Rise, 8° 40′ to 11° 50′ N: Plume distribution and relationship to the apparent magmatic budget", Earth and Planetary Science Letters 128 (1994) 1-17.
- Larson, N.G. (1993) "Calibration of Oceanographic CTD Instruments: Methods and Traceability", Journal of Advanced Marine Technology Conference V7, 3-13.
- Huyer, A. and P.M. Kosro, R. O'Malley, J. Fleishbein (1993) "Seasoar and CTD Observations during a COARE Surveys Cruise, W9211C, 22 Jan to 22 Feb 93, OSU Data Report.
- Pedersen, A.M. and M.C. Gregg (1979) "Development of a small in-situ conductivity instrument", IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering V4(3), 69-75. (summary)
Oceanographic Literature (references to technical literature about oceanographic instrumentation and methods)
- QARTOD Manual for Real-Time Quality Control of Dissolved Oxygen Observations. (full manual)
- Gregg, M.C. and T.B. Meagher (1980) "The Dynamic Response of Glass Rod Thermistors", Journal of Geophysical Research, V85(c5), 2779-2786. (abstract)
- Pike, J.M. and F.L. Beiboer (1993) "A Comparison Between Algorithms for the Speed of Sound in Seawater", The Hydrographic Society, Special Publication No. 34. (link to information)
- Poisson, A., M.H. Gadhoumi, and S. Morcos (1991) "Salinity and density of seawater: Tables for high salinities (42 to 50)", Unesco technical papers in marine science 62. (full article)
- Wearn, R.B. and N.G. Larson (1982) "Measurements of the sensitivities and drift of Digiquartz pressure sensors", Deep-Sea Research, V29 (1A), 111-134. (abstract)
Note: Many Unesco marine science publications are available through Unesco's website. Go to http://unesdoc.unesco.org/ulis/ioc/.
- In the Series title box, select UNESCO technical papers in marine science.
- Select Widen the search to all UNESCO documents/publications.
- Click the Search button.
- 20,000 colleagues under the sea (article about gliders, which use Sea-Bird sensors), The Economist, June 9, 2012.
- A New Wave of Ocean Explorers (article about the Wave Glider, which uses Sea-Bird sensors), Wall Street Journal, March 2012.
- Sea-Bird Electronics: Small Beginnings, Global Impacts, Marine Technology Reporter, March 2012.
- GO_SHIP.ORG (interesting website with information on data acquisition methods).
- Hydrocast Carousel, Discover Magazine, April 20, 2010 issue.
- A brief overview of a CTD system, YouTube video on the R/V Wecoma, December 29, 2009.
- Robot buoys are taking the ocean's pulse (article about Argo floats), Sandi Doughton, Seattle Times science reporter, April 2, 2008.
- Company Spotlight: Sea-Bird Electronics, Ocean News & Technology, Volume 14, Issue 2, March 2008.