Science and Technology Behind the Measurements

The list below contains links to Sea-Bird Technical Papers and useful references on instrument characteristics and methods.

Application Notes / FAQs / Glossary / Training

  • Application Notes contain valuable information about how to use our instruments and software, including information on coefficient calculations, calibration procedures, instrument adjustments, configuration assistance, and instrument care and maintenance.
  • Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) covering general instrument questions, general oceanographic questions, recommended practices, service, ordering, software, data analysis and processing, and manufacturing.
  • Glossary of oceanographic and Sea-Bird terminology.
  • Sea-Bird Training Materials used for Sea-Bird University (a twice yearly, 4-day class taught at Sea-Bird).
  • Application Note 93: CTD Basics provides a very basic introduction to CTDs.



  • Newsletters contain press releases and Sea-Bird's scientific advances in oceanographic instruments and measurement.


Sea-Bird Technical Papers (not published)

Complete text of papers written by Sea-Bird to explain the engineering and science behind a specific Sea-Bird instrument or measurement methodology:


Conference Posters

Published Technical Papers

Complete text:

References (complete text not available on-line through our website)

  • Smethie, W.M. Jr., et al., "A lightweight vertical rosette for deployment in ice-covered waters". Deep-Sea Research I (2011), doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2010.12.007. (abstract)
  • Edwards, B., Janzen, C., Murphy, D., Larson, N., "Calibration, Response and Hysteresis in Deep-Sea Dissolved Oxygen Measurements", Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, Volume 27, Issue 5, May 2010. (abstract)
  • Irish, J.D., Ward, L.G., and Boduch, S., "Correcting and Validating Moored Oxygen Time-Series Observations in the Gulf of Maine", MTS 1-410-884-5330, IEEE Catalog Number CFP08OCE-CDR, ISBN 978-1-4244-2620-1, Library of Congress 2008904879.
  • Riser, S.C and Johnson, K.S., "Net production of oxygen in the subtropical ocean", Nature, January 2008, p. 323 - 325. (abstract)
  • "Supercalibration on the High Seas" (1997), NMi News, Nederlands Meetinstituut, V11(2), 3.
  • Larson, N.G. (1996) "Using a Primary Temperature Standard at Sea: A Case Study on WOCE P-15S", International Marine Technicians Workshop (INMARTECH '96), Southampton England, Final Report.
  • Baker, E.T., Feely, R.A., Mottl, M.J., Sansone, F. T., Wheat, C.G., Resing, J.A., Lupton, J.E., "Hydrothermal plumes along the East Pacific Rise, 8° 40′ to 11° 50′ N: Plume distribution and relationship to the apparent magmatic budget", Earth and Planetary Science Letters 128 (1994) 1-17.
  • Larson, N.G. (1993) "Calibration of Oceanographic CTD Instruments: Methods and Traceability", Journal of Advanced Marine Technology Conference V7, 3-13.
  • Huyer, A. and P.M. Kosro, R. O'Malley, J. Fleishbein (1993) "Seasoar and CTD Observations during a COARE Surveys Cruise, W9211C, 22 Jan to 22 Feb 93, OSU Data Report.
  • Pedersen, A.M. and M.C. Gregg (1979) "Development of a small in-situ conductivity instrument", IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering V4(3), 69-75. (summary)

Oceanographic Literature (references to technical literature about oceanographic instrumentation and methods)

  • QARTOD Manual for Real-Time Quality Control of Dissolved Oxygen Observations. (full manual)
  • Gregg, M.C. and T.B. Meagher (1980) "The Dynamic Response of Glass Rod Thermistors", Journal of Geophysical Research, V85(c5), 2779-2786. (abstract)
  • Pike, J.M. and F.L. Beiboer (1993) "A Comparison Between Algorithms for the Speed of Sound in Seawater", The Hydrographic Society, Special Publication No. 34. (link to information)
  • Poisson, A., M.H. Gadhoumi, and S. Morcos (1991) "Salinity and density of seawater: Tables for high salinities (42 to 50)", Unesco technical papers in marine science 62. (full article)
  • Wearn, R.B. and N.G. Larson (1982) "Measurements of the sensitivities and drift of Digiquartz pressure sensors", Deep-Sea Research, V29 (1A), 111-134. (abstract)

Note: Many Unesco marine science publications are available through Unesco's website. Go to

  1. In the Series title box, select UNESCO technical papers in marine science.
  2. Select Widen the search to all UNESCO documents/publications.
  3. Click the Search button.


Non-Technical Literature